Landscape Monitoring and Assessment Research Plan - 1994



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United States Environmental Protection Agency


Landscape ecology is the study of the structure, function, pattern, and changes in heterogeneous land areas. Landscapes are described by the spatial arrangements of ecological resources. Landscape patterns are an important determinant of the intrinsic sustainability of certain ecological processes that, in turn, provide ecological goods and services (societal values). The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's Landscapes component (EMAP-L) will focus on those landscape patterns that affect flows of energy, water, nutrients, and biota. The primary focus will be on the societal benefits derived from watershed integrity, biotic integrity and diversity, and landscape stability and resilience. The Landscape Monitoring and Assessment Research Plan is divided into five sections which describe: (1) the theoretical basis (landscape ecology) for monitoring landscapes and how this relates to and complements the objectives of EMAP; (2) the conceptual basis of the approach, including the societal values and assessment questions to be addressed; (3) the indicators of landscape condition; (4) the methods for monitoring and assessing the status and trends of landscape condition; and (5) the research and development activities needed to implement the plan.


64 pages; available for download at the link below.


sustainable landscape, landscape condition, landscape ecology, environmental protection