Chemical composition and effects of water extracts of petroleum on eggs of the sand dollar Melitta quinquiesperforata.




Nicol, J.A.C.
Donahue, W.H.
Wang, R.T.
Winters, K.

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Sperm and eggs of sand dollars, Melitta quinquiesperforata (Leske), were subjected to two petroleum oils, and effects determined. The oils chosen were Kuwait crude and No. 2 fuel oil, supplied by the American Petroleum Institute. Water soluble extracts (WSF) from oil-sea water mixes were prepared and the major aromatic components in the WSF of the fuel oil were identified. WSF of No. 2 fuel oil depressed respiration, mobility of sperm, interferred with fertilization and cleavage, and retarded larval development. The effects were detectable at dilutions of 4% and less (about 0.6ppm of WSF). Kuwait crude was much less toxic. There was no effect on water permeability of the egg membrane. Results are compared with similar studies on other marine organisms.


p. 309-316.


echinoderm fisheries, Mellita quinquiesperforata, oil pollution, sublethal effects, toxicity tolerance