Model Studies of Outfall Systems for Desalination Plants. Part 1. Flume Study of the Mixing Characteristics of Dense Jets Discharged into a Flowing Fluid. Volume 1. Main Text. Appendix A: Notation. Appendix B. Conductivity Probe Calibration and Data Reduction




Holly FM; Grace JL

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In the planning and design of plants for desalination of salt water, a major consideration is the environmentally acceptable disposal of the waste brine--a warm, dense, highly salt-laden effluent whose concentrations of copper and other metallic ions are considered to be a threat to the marine ecology. Among the several alternatives for disposal of this brine is the economically attractive one of discharging the effluent back into the ocean or estuary from which it was withdrawn. However, a means of mixing the dense liquid with the ambient fluid sufficiently to dilute the concentration of various salts to safe levels is required. The report discusses, procedures for dilution, tests and recommendations




50B Civil Engineering: Civil Engineering;68D Environmental Pollution & Control: Water Pollution & Control;Alternatives;Brines;Calibration;Concentration;Conductivity;Copper;Data;Delaware Bay;Density;Desalination;Desalting plants;Design;Dilution;Disposal;Ecology;Estuaries;Flumes;Galveston bay;Hydraulic models;Industrial wastes;Ions;Jet flow;Marine;Metallic ions;Mixing;Model studies;Model tests;Outfall sewers;Planning;Plants;Recommendations;Rivers;Salts;San Diego Bay;Thermal pollution;United States;Velocity;Volume;Water;Water pollution;Waterways;