A summary of artificial reef construction on the Texas coast

dc.acquisition-srcen_US
dc.call-noSH 328.M35 no. 98 GBAYen_US
dc.contract-noen_US
dc.contributor.authorCrowe, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMcEachron, L.W.en_US
dc.contributor.otheren_US
dc.date.accessioned2010-02-15T17:10:47Z
dc.date.available2010-02-15T17:10:47Z
dc.date.issued1986en_US
dc.degreeen_US
dc.description67 pagesen_US
dc.description-otheren_US
dc.description.abstractA total of 68 intentional artificial reef areas amounting to a minimum of 502 ha and consisting of various materials such as oyster shell, tires, cars, construction rubble, barges, pipes, ships and drilling rigs have been constructed in Texas marine waters since 1947. Forty-one oyster shell reefs were built (approximately 152 ha) from 1947 to 1982 and 21 remain (approximately 114 ha). Eight tire reefs were constructed from 1966 to 1977; five remain, but they have partially settled into the sediment. Car reefs placed in the nearshore Gulf lasted 2 to 4 years, while concrete and pipe reefs lasted slightly longer. Fourteen ships and two drilling rigs were sunk in the Gulf from 1975 to 1983; all remain. A minimum of 2191 unintentional artificial reef areas in the form of open water spoil disposal areas, piers and docks, jetties, oil and gas well shell pads, and offshore petroleum platforms were in place in 1984. There were approximately 20,000 ha of open water spoil disposal sites permitted in coastal waters and 1362 bay piers and docks on record. Fourteen jetties were in place or under construction with a bottom area of 228 ha.en_US
dc.description.urihttp://gbic.tamug.edu/request.htmen_US
dc.geo-codeGalveston Bayen_US
dc.geo-codeSabine Lakeen_US
dc.geo-codeSmith Pointen_US
dc.geo-codeTrinity Riveren_US
dc.geo-codeEagle Pointen_US
dc.geo-codeRedfish Baren_US
dc.history10/15/04 eas; 2/17/11 kswsen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1969.3/22546
dc.latitudeen_US
dc.locationGBAY Circulating Collectionen_US
dc.longitudeen_US
dc.notesen_US
dc.placeAustin, TXen_US
dc.publisherTexas Parks and Wildlife Department, Coastal Fisheries Branchen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries4830en_US
dc.relation.urien_US
dc.scaleen_US
dc.seriesManagement Data Series No. 98en_US
dc.subjectartificial reefsen_US
dc.subjectabstractsen_US
dc.titleA summary of artificial reef construction on the Texas coasten_US
dc.typeBooken_US
dc.universityen_US
dc.vol-issueNo. 98en_US
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