Wave Action and Damage at the Galveston Sea Wall Resulting from Defective Toe Protection
During Hurricane Carla, September 9 through 12, 1961, the southwest end of the Galveston sea wall was heavily attacked by wave action. As a result, extensive areas of the concrete toe protection part of the wall were severely damaged, the roadway paralleling the wall was undermined, and the backfill behind the wall was subject to extensive erosion. This report has as its basic purpose to investigate the factual issues now before the Board for determination. These issues are (as stated in Stipulation) 1.) Was there a deficiency in the design of the seawall in so far as the toe protection part thereof was concerned. 2.) Did the lowering of the toe protection cause a significant increase in overtopping and water going over the top of the seawall during the storm, and if so, was there substantial erosion, structural damage and any other damage caused thereby. In this report it is intended to show that there was a deficiency in the design of the toe which led to its failure. This in turn subsequently caused an increase in overtopping and water going over the wall resulting in severe scour and erosion.