Functional Design of Breakwaters for Shore Protection: Empirical Methods



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United States Army Corps of Engineers


This report presents empirical relationships available in the literature for design and prediction of beach response to single, segmented, headland, pocket beach, and reef breakwater systems for the primary purpose of shore protection. The data set used to develop each design method is discussed, and the empirical procedures are evaluated based on available Corps-built breakwater project data. An existing US detached breakwater project is used to intercompare design relationships and further assess their validity. Several empirical methods are shown to predict prototype response fairly well. These relationships may be useful in conjunction with detailed studies to quickly assess prototype response to various design alternatives.


49 pages; available for download at the link below.


segmented breakwaters, reef breakwaters, pocket beaches, headlands, empirical design methods, detached breakwaters