Manual: Constructed Wetlands Treatment of Municipal Wastewaters
United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development
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This manual discusses the capabilities of constructed wetlands, a functional design approach, and the management requirements to achieve the designed purpose. The manual also attempts to put the proper perspective on the appropriate use, design and performance of constructed wetlands. For some applications, they are an excellent option because they are low in cost and in maintenance requirements, offer good performance, and provide a natural appearance, if not more beneficial ecological benefits. In other applications, such as large urban areas with large wastewater flows, they may not be all appropriate owing to their land requirements. Constructed wetlands are especially well suited for wastewater treatment in small communities where inexpensive land is available and skilled operators hard to find and keep. Primary customers will be engineers who service small communities, state regulators, and planning professionals. Secondary users will be environmental groups and the academics.