Oil bioassays with the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin)
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Oyster bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicity of four test oils and a reference toxin. The oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were exposed to oil-water dispersion of two crude and two partially refined petroleum hydrocarbons. The partially refined oils No. 2 fuel and Venezuela bunker C were found to be more toxic that the two crude oils tested, South Louisiana and Kuwait. Oysters demonstrated greater resistant to test oils than to the reference toxin, dodecyl sodium sulfate. Valve closure by oysters made it difficult to determine percent mortality data in 96-hr or extended studies. Composition of test solution is compared to calculated values of oil in water and referenced to the relative toxicity demonstrated. Behaviour and condition of the test animals is discussed in relation to bioassay results.